In the News:

Georgia Tech Researchers Offer Open-Source Cancer
Treatment Algorithm

Healthcare Analytics News (October 30th, 2017)-
Calling its project 'a gauntlet', the team wants other researchers to take, use, modify, and expand upon a machine learning platform it built to judge cancer treatment effectiveness using genetic data. (full story..)


Skewing the Aim of Targeted Cancer Therapies

Georgia Tech Research Horizons (August 15th, 2017)-
mRNA-protein level disparities found in metastatic ovarian cancer in more than 60% of measurements across 4,436 genes; evidence of micro RNA regulation (full story..)


Nanoparticles Are Moving Us Toward a Cancer-Free World

Futurism (November 10, 2016)-
A new nanoparticle therapy that uses a minute gel pellet to deliver siRNA to cancer cells has reduced or eliminated carcinomas in in vivo tests in four mice. The treatment is still in its very early stages, but joins a growing number of nanoparticle therapies looking to improve how we combat disease on a cellular level. (full story..)


RNAi-Chemo Tag Team Slams Ovarian Cancer

Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News (November 7, 2016)-
A more sure-footed partner for chemotherapy has been developed by scientists based at the Georgia Institute of Technology. These scientists, led by John McDonald, Ph.D., have devised a functionalized nanohydrogel siRNA delivery system. This system, in a mouse model of ovarian cancer, succeeded in honing in on ovarian tumors and sensitizing them to the chemotherapeutic agent called cisplatin. Together, the siRNA and the cisplatin dramatically shrank or even eliminated the tumors. (full story..)


Experimental blood test could be game changer for ovarian cancer patients
Fox 5 Atlanta (December 7, 2015)

An experimental ovarian cancer screening tool, developed in a collaboration between Georgia Tech and The Ovarian Cancer Institute, could be a game-changer. It's a blood screen. (full story..)


Blood test detects ovarian cancer in nine out of 10 patients
Telegraph (November 18, 2015)

A screening test with a 90 per cent accuracy rate for detecting potentially fatal ovarian cancer early is a major step closer.

Studying blood serum compounds led scientists to a set of biomarkers that may enable development of a highly accurate screening test for early-stage ovarian cancer. Early diagnosis is vital for treatment of ovarian cancer.

(full story..)


Designing Tiny Treatments for Big Cancer

GT Alumni Magazine (Sept 3, 2014)- Georgia Tech molecular biologists, led by John McDonald, are pioneering new methods of attacking tumors using nanoparticles.
Since his arrival on campus in 2004, molecular biologist and Tech Professor John McDonald has been hard at work developing new solutions and strategies for targeting and treating cancer. Some of his latest research concerns the use of nanoparticles to seek out and deliver treatments to ovarian cancer cells without damaging the body's healthy cells. Designing this technology has required collaboration between the McDonald Lab in the School of Biology and Andrew Lyon's lab in the School of Chemistry. (full story..)


Personalized Medicine: Buzzwords Or The Best Way To Treat Cancer?

Science 2.0 (Feb 27, 2014)- It's not often that cancer research gets compared to gridlock traffic in New York City but it makes some sense. If we are driving from Florida, we might take I-95 to get there, but if we are driving from California, we would take I-80. It's a matter of circumstance and then some variables based on choice.
John McDonald, a professor in the School of Biology at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta , says that cancers also have lots of routes to get to the same disease and that assessing the route to cancer on a case-by-case basis might make more sense than the way it is done now.
A new paper argues for the importance of personalized medicine, where we treat cancer by looking for the etiology of the disease in patients individually, rather than basing a patient's cancer treatment on commonly disrupted genes and pathways. In doing so, their study found little or no overlap in the most prominent genetic malfunction associated with each individual patient's disease, compared to malfunctions shared among the group of cancer patients as a whole. "The findings have ramifications on how we might best optimize cancer treatments as we enter the era of targeted gene therapy," says McDonald about the study in PANCREAS earlier this month. (full story..) (link to paper)


New evidence that cancer cells change while moving throughout body

ECM (Aug 12, 2013)- For the majority of cancer patients, it's not the primary tumor that is deadly, but the spread or "metastasis" of cancer cells from the primary tumor to secondary locations throughout the body that is the problem. That's why a major focus of contemporary cancer research is how to stop or fight metastasis.
In a new study, published in the Journal of Ovarian Research, Georgia Tech scientists have direct evidence that EMT takes place in humans, at least in ovarian cancer patients. The findings suggest that doctors should treat patients with a combination of drugs: those that kill cancer cells in primary tumors and drugs that target the unique characteristics of cancer cells spreading through the body.
"It's like noticing that a piece of cake has gone missing from your kitchen and you turn to see your daughter with chocolate on her face", said John McDonald , director of Georgia Tech's Integrated Cancer Research Center and lead investigator on the project. "You didn't see her eat the cake, but the evidence is overwhelming. The gene expression patterns of the metastatic cancers displayed gene expression profiles that unambiguously identified them as having gone through EMT." (full story..) (link to paper)


Our big brains may make us prone to cancer

NewScientist (Oct. 15, 2012)- There's a downside to everything. When humans evolved bigger brains, we became the smartest animal alive and were able to colonise the entire planet. But for our minds to expand, a new theory goes, our cells had to become less willing to commit suicide - and that may have made us more prone to cancer.

By getting rid of malfunctioning cells, apoptosis also prevents cells from growing into tumours. "Reduced apoptotic function is well known to be associated with cancer onset," says John McDonald of the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta.
McDonald compared skin cells from humans, chimpanzees and macaques and found that, compared to cells from other primates, our cells are reluctant to undergo apoptosis. When exposed to apoptosis-triggering chemicals, human cells responded significantly less than the chimp and macaque cells. Fewer human cells died, and they did not change shape in the ways cells do when preparing to die. (full story..) (link to paper)


Stiffness Could Be Possible Biomarker To Predict Metastatic Potential Of Ovarian Cancer Cells
redOrbit (Oct. 09, 2012) - Researchers from Georgia Tech recently found that ovarian cancer cells that are highly metastatic are much softer than ovarian cancer cells that are less metastatic.
The findings on cell stiffness in relation to cancer cells were recently published in the academic journal PLoS ONE.

"In order to spread, metastatic cells must push themselves into the bloodstream. As a result, they must be highly deformable and softer," explained Todd Sulchek, an assistant professor at the George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, in a prepared statement. "Our results indicate that cell stiffness may be a useful biomarker to evaluate the relative metastatic potential of ovarian and perhaps other types of cancer cells."

"This is a good example of the kinds of discoveries that only come about by integrating skills and knowledge from traditionally diverse fields such as molecular biology and bioengineering," remarked John McDonald, the director of Georgia Tech's Integrated Cancer Research Center whose lab worked with Sulchek's lab in the study, in the statement. "Although there are a number of developing methodologies to identify circulating cancer cells in the blood and other body fluids, this technology offers the added potential to rapidly determine if these cells are highly metastatic or relatively benign." (full story..) (link to paper)




Unique Partnership Yields Promising Results at the OCI

MDNews (Oct. 04, 2012)- When news came that researchers at the Ovarian Cancer Institute (OCI) had come up with an assay that could detect ovarian cancer in as little as a single drop of blood with near 100% accuracy, it was music to the ears of Benedict Benigno, M.D., who has spent his career treating patients with this disease.
Dr. Benigno founded OCI in 1999 with the mission to develop innovative research that leads to earlier detection and more efficacious and less toxic forms of therapy. The research team - composed of OCI Chief Research Scientist and Georgia Institute of Technology biology professor John McDonald, Ph.D., Georgia Tech chemistry professor Facunco Fernandez, Ph.D., and Georgia Tech computer science professor Alex Gray, Ph.D. - is continuing to further refine the early detection test for ovarian cancer that preliminary results have shown to be extremely accurate and specific. (full story..)



Magnetic filtration: a new weapon

MedicalDevice-Network (Sept. 17, 2012) - The use of magnetic filtration has the potential to transform the treatment of metastatic cancers. Kenneth E Scarberry and John F McDonald of the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, US, explain how an ancient method of purging the human body of impurities could provide the inspiration for future research into the removal of malignant cells.

Magnetic filtration has been actively applied in industrial processing, food processing and wastewater management strategies over several decades as a means of eliminating magnetic impurities.
Removing impurities from bodily fluids is a concept that pre-dates the ancient practice of bloodletting, which evolved into the science of haemofiltration in the 1800s. The recent advent of nanoscience enabled a synergistic approach to purging the human body of contaminants by first selectively magnetising them using magnetic nanomaterials, and then removing them using magnetic filtration and the fluid management principles integral to technologies like haemofiltration and peritoneal dialysis. (full story..)



Using Millions of Years of Cell Evolution in the Fight Against Cancer

ScienceBlog (Aug. 7, 2012)- As the medical community continues to make positive strides in personalized cancer therapy, scientists know some dead ends are unavoidable. Drugs that target specific genes in cancerous cells are effective, but not all proteins are targetable. In fact, it has been estimated that as few as 10 to 15 percent of human proteins are potentially targetable by drugs. For this reason, Georgia Tech researchers are focusing on ways to fight cancer by attacking defective genes before they are able to make proteins.
Professor John McDonald is studying micro RNAs (miRNAs), a class of small RNAs that interact with messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that have been linked to a number of diseases, including cancer. McDonald's lab placed two different miRNAs (MiR-7 and MiR-128) into ovarian cancer cells and watched how they affected the gene system. The findings are published in the current edition of the journal BMC Medical Genomics.
"Each inserted miRNA created hundreds of thousands of gene expression changes, but only about 20 percent of them were caused by direct interactions with mRNAs," said McDonald. "The majority of the changes were indirect - they occurred downstream and were consequences of the initial reactions." (full story..)



Clinical Application of miRNAs Remains a Ways Off
When and if its time comes, prognostic tests will likely be first

GEN (Jul. 19, 2012)- While it remains too early to tell whether microRNAs (miRNAs) will ultimately prove clinically useful, preclinical research findings continue to confirm their central role in controlling cellular pathways. his novel class of nucleotides, about 20-25 nucleotides in length, affects gene expression by interacting with messenger RNAs. But unlike siRNAs, miRNAs are encoded in the human genome and function as natural regulators of global gene expression.
John F. McDonald, Ph.D., professor, associate dean for biology program development, CSO Ovarian Cancer Institute, and colleagues at the Georgia Institute of Technology separately transfected two miRNAs (miR-7 and miR-128) into the ovarian cancer cell line (HEY) and then monitored global changes in gene expression levels.
While 20% of the changes in expression patterns of hundreds to thousands of genes could be attributed to direct miRNA-mRNA interactions, they reported, the majority of the changes were indirect, involving the downstream consequences of miRNA-mediated changes in regulatory gene expression. The pathways most significantly affected by miR-7 transfection, the investigators said, are involved with cell adhesion and other developmental networks previously associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and other processes linked with metastasis. (full story..)



Georgia Tech Establishes a New Research Center Focused on Cancer

Newswise (June 19, 2012)- Georgia Tech, which has had a long-standing history in cancer research, announces a new Intergrated Cancer Research Center which will bring together 48 biologists, bioengineers, chemists and physicists from seven different schools and departments, to take new innovative approaches to basic cancer research. John McDonald, PhD, professor of biology in the Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience (IBB), will head the new center.
For years, the study of cancer has been concentrated at major medical research institutions and cancer research has been traditionally viewed as falling exclusively within the bailiwick of the biological sciences. This is now changing for the better, according to McDonald. "We are at a truly exciting crossroads in the history of cancer research where molecular biology, the computational sciences, engineering and nanotechnology are joining together in a unified effort to develop more effective cancer diagnostics and therapeutics," added McDonald. (full story..)



Cancer Gene Sequencing will Lead to More Focused Care Processes

SlonePartners (Feb. 22, 2012)- If specific gene mutations could be tracked in cancer cells, doctors would be better able to target specific problem areas in patients, along with being more equipped to predict future health concerns. Georgia Tech researchers think they may have developed a solution to the massive amount of data involved with gene sequencing, which will give those seeking careers in pathology the ability to more easily uncover information about cancer.
Scientists have for years grappled with the issue of efficiently understanding data related to gene sequencing, because of the sheer volume of genetic information contained within the human genome. To address this problem, Georgia Tech researchers have developed R-SAP, an algorithm that quickly translates genetic information into readable information for those with clinical research jobs.
"A major bottleneck in the realization of the dream of personalized medicine is no longer technological. It's computational," Georgia Tech's John McDonald, director of the facility's Integrated Cancer Research Center, said in a press release. "R-SAP follows a hierarchical decision-making procedure to accurately characterize various classes of gene transcripts in cancer samples." (full story..) (link to paper)



Georgia Tech Develops Computational Algorithm to Assist in Cancer Treatments

Communications ACM (Feb. 14, 2012)- High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies are leading to a revolution in how clinicians diagnose and treat cancer. The molecular profiles of individual tumors are beginning to be used in the design of chemotherapeutic programs optimized for the treatment of individual patients. The real revolution, however, is coming with the emerging capability to inexpensively and accurately sequence the entire genome of cancers, allowing for the identification of specific mutations responsible for the disease in individual patients.
The RNA-Seq analysis pipeline (R-SAP) was developed by School of Biology Professor John McDonald and Ph.D. Bioinformatics candidate Vinay Mittal. Details of the pipeline are published in "R-SAP: A Multi-Threading Computational Pipeline for the Characterization of High-Throughput RNA-Sequencing Data" in the journal Nucleic Acids Research. (full story..) (link to paper)




Baylor, Georgia Tech Teams Collaborating on Protein, Metabolite Markers for Ovarian Cancer

Genomeweb (Jan. 20, 2012)- Scientists from Baylor College of Medicine and the Georgia Institute of Technology have won $900,000 from the Ovarian Cancer Research Fund to investigate the early detection of ovarian cancer. "This grant is a program project development grant, and the idea is to bring together a number of individuals around a common theme," Martin Matzuk, a BCM professor of pathology and immunology and one of the leaders of the project, told ProteoMonitor. "We were previously funded by OCRF along with a number of investigators to focus on the role of microRNAs in ovarian cancer. That work has gone very well, so we put together another proposal in which we decided to focus on biomarkers, whether they're protein or small molecule."
Matzuk is collaborating on the work with his BCM colleague Laising Yen as well as John McDonald, a Georgia Tech researcher and chief research scientist at Atlanta's Ovarian Cancer Institute. McDonald, who will head up the search for metabolomic biomarkers, leads a research team that published a paper in August 2010 detailing a metabolomic ovarian cancer diagnostic that identified women with ovarian cancer with 100 percent accuracy in a 94-subject trial (PM 8/20/2010). (full story..)



'Junk DNA' Defines Differences Between Humans and Chimps

ScienceDaily (Oct. 25, 2011)- The research team lead by Georgia Tech Professor of Biology John McDonald has verified that while the DNA sequence of genes between humans and chimpanzees is nearly identical, there are large genomic "gaps" in areas adjacent to genes that can affect the extent to which genes are "turned on" and "turned off. " The research shows that these genomic "gaps" between the two species are predominantly due to the insertion or deletion (INDEL) of viral-like sequences called retrotransposons that are known to comprise about half of the genomes of both species. The findings are reported in the most recent issue of the online, open-access journal Mobile DNA. (full story..) (link to paper)



Systems Biology For Studying Cancer

The Daily Sign-out (May 17, 2011)- This month's issue of Future Oncology has a well-written editorial from Dr. John McDonald from Georgia Tech regarding systems biology in cancer research. This is a free download and I highly recommend it as a nice overview contrasting the traditional "reductionist" approach to cancer cell biology research versus the emerging application of a systems biology approach. (full story..)



Scientists Using Magnet Therapy To Try To Stop Ovarian Cancer

KABC-TV (Apr. 07, 2011)- Now, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology are studying a new weapon in the war against ovarian cancer, using magnetic nanoparticles engineered to attach to cancer cells circulating in the body.
"If we can target those magnetic nanoparticles to ovarian cancer cells, they'll attach to the free-flowing cancer cells, and then, in a magnetic field, we can sweep all of the cancer cells out," said John McDonald, Ph.D., professor of biology at Georgia Tech. (full story..)



The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer: A Potentially Fatal Transformation?

Tumor cells from a highly aggressive ovarian cancer cell line are shown on the left. They have a mesenchymal shape (spindle-like) and express typical mesenchymal markers. On the right, cells from the same cell line reverted to an epithelial shape (rounded) and expressed epithelial cell markers after researchers introduced microRNA-429. (Images courtesy of Dr. John McDonald, Georgia Institute of Technology

National Cancer Institute (March 8, 2011)- The question remains one of cancer biology's most perplexing: How do cancer cells from a primary tumor navigate to other parts of the body to form metastatic tumors? Most solid tumors arise from epithelial cells, which normally stick together in tightly bound sheets to provide the structural foundations of many organs. In principle, epithelial cells lack the ability to escape those bonds and wiggle and jostle their way into nearby tissues, other organs, or the circulatory system. Yet, somehow cancerous epithelial cells-also known as carcinoma cells-do end up in other areas of the body, and the outcome is often dire: metastatic tumors are responsible for the vast majority of cancer-associated deaths. full story



Discovery May Lead To Turning Back The Clock On Ovarian Cancer

Georgia Tech News Room (Feb. 3, 2011)- Cancer researchers have discovered that a type of regulatory RNA may be effective in fighting ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer isn't typically discovered until it's in the advanced stages, where it is already spreading to other organs and is very difficult to fight with chemotherapy. This new discovery may allow physicians to turn back the clock of the tumor's life cycle to a phase where traditional chemotherapy can better do its job.

"Primary tumors are rarely fatal," said John F. McDonald, director of the Integrated Cancer Research Center in Georgia Tech's School of Biology and chief research scientist at the Ovarian Cancer Institute. "Most cancer patients succumb because the cancer metastasizes, and current chemotherapies are not designed to kill metastasizing cancer cells." (full story..)



Study Suggests New Treatment Option for Ovarian Cancer

Georgia Tech News Room (Jan. 26, 2011)- A paper published in the January issue of the journal Nanomedicine could provide the foundation for a new ovarian cancer treatment option -- one that would use an outside-the-body filtration device to remove a large portion of the free-floating cancer cells that often create secondary tumors.
The removal system being developed by McDonald and postdoctoral fellow Ken Scarberry -- who is also CEO of startup company Sub-Micro -- should slow tumor progression in humans. It may reduce the number of free-floating cancer cells enough that other treatments, and the body's own immune system, could keep the disease under control. (full story..)



TRIOMPH - Translational Research Initiative in Oncology for Management of Personalized Healthcare

"The traditional treatment philosophy of 'one size fits all' is quickly becoming obsolete.No two individuals are alike nor are two cancers: each is unique based on genetic makeup," said George Daneker, MD, and Medical Director of Oncology Research, Saint Joseph's."For years, we've been in a dark tunnel when it comes to pancreatic cancer treatment, now we are blinded by light when it comes to possible treatments."
John McDonald, PhD & George W. Daneker, MD
(full story..)



End of Microplates? Novel Electronic Biosensing Technology Could Facilitate New Era of Personalized Medicine

ScienceDaily (Sep. 20, 2010)- The multi-welled microplate, long a standard tool in biomedical research and diagnostic laboratories, could become a thing of the past thanks to new electronic biosensing technology developed by a team of microelectronics engineers and biomedical scientists at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
"This technology could help facilitate a new era of personalized medicine," said John McDonald, chief research scientist at the Ovarian Cancer Institute in Atlanta and a professor in the Georgia Tech School of Biology. (full story..)



Arresting Development: Blood Biomarker Patterns May Aid Early Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer

Scientific American (Aug. 17, 2010)- It is disproportionately deadly because ovarian tumors tend to flourish while producing few obvious symptoms. And no reliable methods exist to detect the cancer at early stages, when treatments are most effective. But this situation may soon change if researchers can extend the promise of a recent study, in which scientists detected ovarian cancer from blood samples with near 100 percent accuracy.
Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology collected blood from 44 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer at various stages, along with that from 50 healthy controls.
"Part of the reason for that," McDonald says, "is that cancer is not a single disease-there's a lot of variability. A given patient may have more of one protein, while another won't." (full story..)



Attacking Cancer Cells With Hydrogel Nanoparticles

ScienceDaily (Feb. 16, 2010)- One of the difficulties of fighting cancer is that drugs often hit other non-cancerous cells, causing patients to get sick. But what if researchers could sneak cancer-fighting particles into just the cancer cells? Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the Ovarian Cancer Institute are working on doing just that. In the online journal BMC Cancer they detail a method that uses hydrogels -- less than 100 nanometers in size -- to sneak a particular type of small interfering RNA(siRNA) into cancer cells. Once in the cell the siRNA turns on the programmed cell death the body uses to kill mutated cells and help traditional chemotherapy do it's job. (full story..)



Using Magnetic Nanoparticles To Combat Cancer

MedicalNewsToday (Jul. 17, 2008)- Scientists at Georgia Tech have developed a potential new treatment against cancer that attaches magnetic nanoparticles to cancer cells, allowing them to be captured and carried out of the body. The treatment, which has been tested in the laboratory and will now be looked at in survival studies, is detailed online in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. (full story..)

 


Nanotech 'Trojan Horse' Sneaks Drugs Into Cancer Cells

TechNewsWorld (Feb. 18, 2010)- Nanotechnology is proving to be a mighty weapon against cancer. Nanotech-based medicines are therapeutic because they can effectively exploit the unique mechanical properties of cancer lesions and treat the various forms of the disease locally, according to biomedical engineer Mauro Ferrari, who says, "we are on the brink of a new era in cancer treatment." (full story..)



Ga Tech Researchers Use Magnets to Treat Cancer

Public Broadcasting Atlanta (Feb. 8, 2010)- Scientists at Georgia Tech are testing a new way to treat cancer. Instead of chemotherapy or radiation, the procedure involves magnets. WABE's Jim Burress reports.
It sounds simple. Attach tiny, magnetic particles to cancer cells then use a magnet to remove the cancer. (full story..)



CAU, Tech To Explore Customized Cancer Care

AJC (Aug. 4, 2009)- A new partnership between Clark Atlanta University and Georgia Tech will explore ways to use DNA sequencing to analyze the genetic makeup of cancer patients and develop customized care. The Collaborative Cancer Genomics Cancer at CAU will focus on lung, ovarian, prostate and pancreatic cancers.
"One of our major goals is to begin to look at cancer patients as individuals," said Dr. John McDonald, director of Georgia Tech's Integrative Cancer Research Center and chief research scientist for the Ovarian Cancer Institute. (full story..)



Is Cancer The Price For Our Big Brains?

MSNBC(Jun. 10, 2009)- Our large brains may make us cognitively superior to chimps, but, according to a new hypothesis, we could be paying a price for our sizable cerebrum: a higher rate of cancer.
To find out why this might be, John McDonald, a researcher at Georgia Tech, turned to the human and chimp genome. Many past studies have looked at differences in how genes are expressed among humans and chimps. McDonald and his colleagues re-examined the data of a previous gene expression study and added some previously excluded information. (full story..)



SciTech(College of Science, Georgia Tech) Interview with Dr. McDonald (pdf)


Abracadabra! Nanoparticles Make Cancer Cells Rise

Discovery News (July 31, 2008)- By binding magnetic nanoparticles to human ovarian cancer cells, researchers at Georgia Tech can make the cancerous cells rise to the skin surface by simply passing a magnet over them.
"In principle this technique could be applied to any pathogen that is found in the blood stream," said John McDonald, a scientist at Georgia Tech and coauthor of the paper that appeared in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
The beauty of the experiment, according to McDonald, is the nanoparticles' affinity for ovarian cancer cells. "The strength of the binding has to be very strong so when you pull the particles with a magnet they don't just fall off," said McDonald. (full story..)



Magnets Capture Cancer Cells

ABC News (July 22, 2008)- Magnetic nanoparticles coated with a specialized targeting molecule were able to latch on to cancer cells in mice and drag them out of the body.
The study's authors, researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology, hope that the new technique will one day provide a way to test for--and potentially even treat--metastatic ovarian cancer.
"It's possible that the particles may not ever have to go into the patient's body," says John McDonald, chief scientific officer of the Ovarian Cancer Institute at Georgia Tech and a senior author of the paper. "That would be preferable, because then you don't have to worry about any potential toxicity." (full story..)